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Since the implementation of environmental regulations in 2006, the electronic industry has moved to Pb-free solders. Harsh environment industries that were exempted from the regulations will soon have to follow suit. However, a suitable replacement solder ...
Category:Archive
Reliability of a solder joint can influence the reliability of the whole circuit. An allotropic transformation of white β-tin into grey α-tin called tin pest may occur at temperatures below 13.2 °C. This would lead to the degradation of mechanical propert ...
Category:Archive
OwnerDom
The formation of tin pest in temperatures occurs below 13.2°C which causes degradation of the material or complete disintegration. Some elements within the alloy can limit the transition, while others can accelerate the formation. EDXS was conducted on l ...
Category:Archive
This paper provides the most recent results of commercial solder allots under temperatures below the allotropic transition of tin (13°C). Tin pest severity is graded into six levels and the observation of α-phase formed on the materials used for compariso ...
Category:Archive
This paper investigates long-lasting exposure of different Pb-free solder Sn-Ag-Cu alloy (SAC) joints in printed circuit boards to low temperatures (-55°C). The results shows that the long-lasting temperature did not have a significant influence on shear ...
Category:Archive
The β to α phase transformation of tin is a dramatic process. The material's ductility is reduced to form a brittle material. This study establishes a method of observing in situ the allotropic transformation from the β to α phases of tin. A model has be ...
Category:Archive
This article describes the uses of tin in cold environments and methods of reducing the effects of tin pest. A case study is presented: The Effect of Ten Year's Exposure of Samples of Commercial Tin and Tin Products to Low Temperature. The project invest ...
Category:Archive
This article investigates the formation of tin pest. Described is the nature of formation, factors affecting the transformation and the effects of impurities and alloying additions. Presented by C.E. Homer and H.C. Watkins, The Metal Industry (London) in ...
Category:Archive
This paper reports tests performed on five solders Sn–0.7Cu, Sn–3.4Ag–0.8Cu, Sn–3.5Ag, Sn–36Pb–2Ag, and pure Sn, and two mobile phone boards for tin pest. The samples were placed at -196°C for 50h, -17°C for 1.5 years and -40°C for 4 years. The results ...
Category:Archive
This paper investigates the appearance of tin pest in Sn-0.5 wt.% Cu solder alloy. In about 40% of the samples tin pest was found on the surface of the specimens aged at 225K for 1.5 years and further increase to 1.8 years saw 70% of the samples affected ...
Category:Archive
Tin pest occurs due to the allotropic transition from the body-centred tetragonal structure (white tin) to a diamond cubic structure (grey tin) that is very brittle below 13°C. This paper describes the effects of mechanical testing and thermal treatment ...
Category:Archive
This paper describes the effects of low temperatures on the characteristics of lead free alloys based upon tin. The effects of prolonged exposure of a Sn-0.5Cu alloy and a Sn-37Pb alloy to low temperatures, well below that of the allotropic transition is ...
Category:Archive
This paper gives an extended overview of tin pest: What it is The incidence and kinetics The effects of alloying elements The effects of cold working The effects of external pressure
Category:Archive
This correspondence investigates the thermo-mechanical behavior of Sn96Ag4 soldered joints. Twelve test samples have been prepared by joining Cu slabs with a lap joint. Six of them have been made with a thick ribbons of Sn96Ag4 solder alloy covering the c ...
Category:Archive
Tin pest phenomena has been known for centuries.Tin pest occurs in high-tin content alloys at temperatures below 13°C, when the white tin converts to a grey tin resulting in an expansion of the tin and crumbling effect. This paper reviews what is known a ...
Category:Archive
Due to the introduction of the RoHS directive there has been a great concern on the occurrence of tin pest in lead-free alloys.This paper investigates the formation of tin pest in lead-free alloys. Alloys samples of Sn99.5Ag3.0Cu0.5, Sn99Cu1 and Sn98Cu2 ...
Category:Archive
The growth of whiskers is not a new phenomenon. Tin whiskers grow in the lead-free solder and pose a serious reliability risk to electronic assemblies. For example, the NASA space shuttle failure. NASA strongly prefers no pure tin, or zinc, or cadmium on ...
Category:Reliability
Lead-free solders are being implemented in the industry, however the processing and performance remain a problem. This paper explores the change over to lead-free in terms of performance with attention on long-term high reliability applications. The area ...
Category:Archive
The observations of the most recent allotropic transformation in several lead-free solder alloys are reported in this paper. Tin pest has been observed in Sn-0.5Cu, Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu, and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloys at both -18ºC and -40ºC.No tin pes ...
Category:Archive
Tin-rich materials such as organ pipes are affected by localised deterioration in the form of grey pustules pinholes, cracks and exfoliations at the surface. There are two types of decay that occur to tin-based materials,either there is an allotropic tran ...
Category:Archive